Anthropomorphic global warming and the `heat pump` thermodynamics physics model

Such math and physics models are of great utility, as they give us a basis for reasoning quantitatively about climate change. Despite this utility, however, many such models have not yet made it into the textbooks or popular literature, but remain scattered throughout the vast and technical scientific literature. Our aim here is to provide
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Six Dimensional Space Time

Six Dimensional Space Time peacock perspective Six Dimensional Space Time 6D (SO 3,3) mathematics is a new type of mathematics developed by a small and talented team of scientists, engineers and technologists at TAGDit headed by its founder, Jode Himann. In its most simplistic terms, 6D mathematics extends Einstein’s famous 4D spacetime mathematics consisting of
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The Search for the Grande Algorithm and the Chained Super Organism

The story of the one man’s journey into darkness, and his courageous fight against monumental obstacles that would test the limits of his endurance

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The Democratic Quality Vector and the New Social Agreement

The Democratic Quality Vector spans politics, history, culture, progress, revolution, epistemology as well as biology, sociology, neuroscience, mathematics and even psychedelic drugs

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TAGDit | Data Farming Application

A cloud-based, hybrid intranet with high quality data-farming and storefront

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6D Mathematics: Laws of Physics, Chemistry, Biology & Social Science

Investigating a new 6 dimensional flat spacetime model with 3 spatial and 3 temporal dimensions

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Vector Parameterized Health Information System

References of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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Nemacloud

Wireless communications are the nerve fibres carrying all the IoT and camera data from IntelliPoles into Nemacloud, the brain of your superorganism. This is where all the magic happens.  Nemacloudsoftware is the brain that unleashes the power of machine intelligence to create a human-centric HMI paradigm. Powerful algorithms, pattern recognition and data analytics will empower your organization with human-centric automation, and shift the goal post from a smart city, to an intelligent one.

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Intellipole

It is an outdoor lighting pole designed for the most extreme operating conditions which converges inputs such as IoT sensors, cameras, microphone, and outputs control signals, lighting, audio, video output, and human recommendations.

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22. References

References of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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21. Conclusion

Chapter 21 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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20. DQV Experiment: The Corporation

Chapter 20 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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19. Enhanced Political Freedom

Chapter 19 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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18. Information Overload

Chapter 18 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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17. Radical Transparency in Crown Corporations / State-Owned Organizations and the Legal System and the Law Society

Chapter 17 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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16. DQV Application to the Legal System

Chapter 16 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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15. A Emergent Psychometric from a Six Dimensional World View for Economic Delay Discounting

Chapter 15 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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14. The Need for a Democratic Quality Vector

Chapter 14 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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13. The Value of Social Capital

Chapter 13 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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12. The Democratic Quality Vector

Chapter 12 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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11. The Preferential Math of the Universe

Chapter 10 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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10. The Universal Metric Applied to Biology

Chapter 11 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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9. The Search for a Universal Metric

Chapter 8 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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8. Adding warmth to cold hard facts

Chapter 7 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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7. Drugs, Knowledge and Culture

Chapter 6 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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6. Can We Trust Our Own Thoughts with Innate Cognitive Biases & Human Limitations?

Chapter 6 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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5. The Value of Knowledge

Chapter 4 of the Democratic Quality Vector Book, which explores democracy and mathematics and how when combined, they can change the world as we know it.

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4. Scientific Knowledge & the Cold Hard Facts

Scientific theories seem to be proven wrong quite often. This should come as no surprise for anyone versed in science, for the veracity of experimental models is continually being tested by new observations.

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3. A Brief History of Fake News

Humanity has passed the industrial age and is well into the information age. Data has become the lifeblood of our society and our economy.

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A New Way to Decide

As humanity begins another chapter of its journey into the unknown, we are faced with tremendous challenges.

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1. Introduction

Our democratic voting system is heralded as one of the greatest achievements of modern civilization. Wars have been fought, blood has been shed and many have died to ensure our right to vote.

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Thermal Batteries: Can You Help Me Potentially Save a Billion Human Lives? Global Warming and Infrared LEDs.

In January 2016 NASA put out a call for engineers to design an impossible light fixture that produced zero heat. This was because excess heat on a space ship is always a potential catastrophe.

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Optical Ignition: From Bottled Water to LED Luminaires

Hazardous location environments carry a high risk of explosion due to the presence of flammable and explosive substances which can range from combustible gas to fine airborne, particulate matter.

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Voting Pole

The Voting Pole is an outdoor, digital polling station that offers voters a new level of voter security

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Traceability: Should equipment in industrial, critical and hazardous locations require Block Chain traceability certifications?

Traceability is important. It’s why manufacturing standards like ISO exist, so that customers can have assurance that accredited companies meet minimum quality standards. I

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Starting a fire with a bottle of water and other disasters

Did you know that incandescent lightbulbs can reach 100 degrees Celsius or more? They can heat paper to temperatures beyond 200 degrees, if placed carelessly. The filament temperature can become exponentially hotter than that, with temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees Celsius. No wonder they cause fires.

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Proven, practical advice for lighting the apocalypse

Proven, practical advice for lighting the apocalypse.

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LED Binning and Surface Temperature

We all know that technological innovation is exploding today. But what we may not think too much about is the flip side of this. While scientific knowledge and technology increases exponentially, knowledge is also becoming obsolete at a rate faster than ever before

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Aerostat Lighting

A mobile solution for temporary, large-area, outdoor lighting Aerostat lighting is a novel way to achieve wide area coverage for remote or temporary outdoor applications by mounting area luminaires underneath a tethered or self-propelled airship high above the ground. Applications can range from O+G drilling operations, outdoor events or filming. If surveillance or security applications
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Ignition Risk Due to Optical Radiation

It looks like this IEC standard (EN-60079-28) might not actually apply to luminaires anyway, from a draft document I found on the web. We’re looking into it, since it makes sense that there should be some limitations on optical power for HazLoc. Here’s a ballpark analysis, which indicates the CRS Electronics luminaires are not likely to be an ignition source due to the optical radiation emitted. However, if we maxed out the drive current for a luminaire, the optical flux can exceed the limits set by the IEC.

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Immersion and Condensation Testing

Condensation has been observed in the head of an early luminaire fixture installed in the field at the Manitouwadge Airport. A sample luminaire was repurposed for R&D evaluation and subjected to condensation and immersion testing. No evidence of condensation was observed after multiple warm-up and cold water immersion cycles, indicating that the fixture is well sealed at least when manufactured according to assembly instructions. However, some concern remains as to the long-term effects of pressure cycling the luminaire head with repeated warm-up/cool-down cycles.

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Thermal Testing

This is a study of a luminaire device under various environmental conditions. The testing proceeded in 3 parts. The first part was a 1000 hour test which cycled temperature between -55°C and 105°C while turning the power to the light fixture off and on again. The second part was a 24-hour high temperature soak, where the device was kept at the temperature of 107°C, and while the power to the device was turned off for 2 hours and then turned back on for two hours, and repeated until test conclusion. The final test was identical to the second test, excepting that the temperature was set to -55°C.

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Hydrostatic Pressure Resistance Test

This is a study of hydrostatic pressure resistance of two different lighting fixtures. As per “Device Pressure Testing” quotation, two separate devices, were first filled with oil, attached to our DHI pressure generator system, and then submitted to hydrostatic pressure.

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How to kill a mosquito at 30 feet

Interesting question… Are we talking vaporize, ignite, or heat up until death for the mosquito? I’ll assume we want to minimize damage to surroundings so let’s just heat them up till they stop functioning. We’d need to figure out the temperature at which a majority of mosquitos will die. Since they seem to love hot weather, let’s assume we need to hit 100°C for them to fry. Estimating the average absorption coefficient for a mosquito when illuminated with the spectrum of your favorite LED source (50% of incident radiative power absorbed?), cross sectional area presented to the beam (1mm2?), and mosquito heat capacity (likely somewhere near that of water, 75.3 J/mol.K), and average weight (2.5mg).Another limiting factor will likely be time-on-target for the beam. According to Wolfram Alpha the max speed of a mosquito is 1.4km/h or 0.39m/s, which means a transit time of 0.26second to fly through a 10cm diameter beamFrom 2,3,4 we can determine the radiometric power needed.

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New Product

We have created a great new product, it has been designed for harsh locations, extreme water resistance and comes with corrosion protection. Key Features: Thermally managed for maximum longevity; Multiple mounting options; Emits light in the photosynthetic photon ux (PPF) range of plants (400 to 700 nm); ‘Sunlight’ model’s spectrum can be tuned based on the crop and life cyle of the plants; Special powder coating for extreme resistance to chemical attack and aggressive cleaning agents and bio-cides used in food processing industries; Low surface-energy coating and smooth surface texture prevent debris build-up and staining; Vented enclosure ensures long-term reliability; 0-10V Dimming 1%-100%.

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Explosion Proof Testing

An explosion proof lighting fixture indicates that if explosive gas gathers inside the fixture and then explodes, the fixture will contain the explosion. The design of the fixture then, needs to have a “flame path” where the fire is extinguished, but the pressure is released. In the certification process, this is done with different gases and sparkplugs. In some of our research we used hydraulic pressure to test the maximum pressure that a fixture can contain without deforming. This can be a very dangerous process.

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Photometric Test Results

We are currently developing a grow light. This fixture is designed to be better at growing and brighter than conventional solutions. The lux to PPFD or lumen to PPF conversion for the fixture is much higher than HPS fixture. We have taken our “Food Safe” fixture design and integrated plant lighting. The fixture is sealed, watertight and perfect for large scale growing.

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Remote Phosphors in Lighting Applications

Several companies have heavily patented the use of remote phosphors in lighting applications. Most of these patents are broad enough to cover any LED use of phosphors. Additionally there are numerous application-specific patents out there by a wide range of companies. LEDs Magazine has a good overview article on the patent landscape for remote phosphors here. Cree is asserting a patent on remote phosphor based LED luminaires and bulbs, the rights to which are not automatically granted with the purchase of Cree royal blue LEDs. Cree’s licensing program is detailed here. Intematix is also asserting rights to a number of patents on remote phosphor designs, their list of patents and patent applications can be found here. It appears that use of the Intematix Chromalit line of remote phosphor products includes right-to-use, and that Intematix will provide legal defense in event of a lawsuit based on rights to the remote phosphor technology. It is not clear whether this support is provided for use of raw phosphors coated by CRS Electronics. CRS Electronics will need to ensure that it carries out a patent search and assesses right-to-use prior to product launch for any remote phosphor application.

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Solar Decathlon

The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition made up of contests that challenge student teams to design and build full-size, solar-powered houses. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends design excellence and smart energy production with innovation, market potential, energy and water efficiency. Simply put, there’s nothing else like it. In 2009, we installed a low voltage distribution system to control the lighting and peripherals in the Alberta/University of Calgary entry. Team Alberta came in 6th place out of 20 contestants.

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Encapsulation and Immersion Testing

The initial trial units of a fully sealed luminaire design failed after several weeks in-situ under water at a depth of approximately 3m. Design modifications to the RSLED head and further testing were carried out to enable permanent submersion at depths of up to 4m. Based on internal CRS Electronics testing, a fully encapsulated RSLED head appears water-tight and suitable for permanent submersion at depths of 4m or less. It should be noted that this is a CRS Electronics internal IP68 test only, and all units produced in this manner will be CSA or QPS special inspected to general location standards.

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Photobiology in Agriculture

Photobiology is the study of light and its effect on living things. There has been a great deal of study on photobiology in the area of agriculture. The interest continues to grow because the science is becoming more refined and the marketplace is developing. Some random notes and an initial Nemalux fixture spectra is shown below. McCree Curve: K. J. McCree (1970) studied and developed the action spectrum, absorption and quantum yield curves of photosynthesis in crop plants. The action spectrum is commonly known as the McCree Curve. McCree curve shows the relative photosynthesis response in the between 400-700 nm (commonly known as photosynthetically active region or PAR) for plants growth. This is also known as the generalized PAR curve. McCree also showed the relative quantum yield and relative absorption for 400-700nm region. This work has been the basis of all of the researches that followed until now.

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Photobiology: Safety and Productivity

Photobiology is the study of light and its effect on living things. There has been a great deal of study on photobiology in the area of agriculture. However, its application in the oil & gas environment is a new field. It is a niche market for those companies like CRS Electronics that have the expertise to engineer lighting systems that enhance operations and safety in the energy sector. An oil & gas operation runs on a 24 hour rotation. It is a rhythm that is dictated by the market demand for the product. Employees on the same site are not immune to the demands of the market. Twelve hour shifts and rotating shift work is part and parcel in the oil & gas industry. It’s a potentially explosive environment where serious accidents can occur. Statistically, most oil rig accidents occur between the hours of 8:00pm and 10pm. The principal cause: worker fatigue.

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Remote Phosphor Technology

Remote phosphors have been used in a number of competing LED lighting products, and are known as one route to increase fixture efficiency. Removing the heat generating phosphor from the LED chip and allowing it to be independently dissipated through the lens or case assembly enables the LED junction to maintain a lower temperature for the same luminous output. Prototype films have been made in-house at CRS Electronics to assess coating of phosphor powders to generate custom emission spectra for individual projects or special applications.

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Farewell Scott Riesebosch

Scott Riesebosch has given much to CRS in his 18 years as president and chief technical officer. We wish him the all the best in his exciting venture as the president of Tailwind. Scott has a degree in electrical engineering from McMaster University and has been designing and manufacturing high output LED light engines and luminaries since 1998 when the first high output LEDs came to market. He has been a speaker at a number of conferences, educating businesses and consumers in an effort to assist them in making better and informed purchasing decisions regarding LED technology. His involvement in LED lighting applications, include military, aviation, medical, retail signage, automotive, flashlights, emergency vehicles, architectural, underwater, theatrical, street lighting, and fluorescent tube replacements.

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Design and Manufacturing Services

We Create, You Illuminate: CRS Electronics’ Custom LED Lighting department is capable of providing exceptional lighting solutions for a wide verity of applications. With a strong background in electronics, physics and mechanics our team of dedicated professionals provides a turnkey solution from the initial design to full scale production. Our involvement in lighting projects includes hazardous location lighting for the light and heavy industrial segments, lighting controls for advanced warning systems, wavelength specific lighting for scientific and aerospace applications as well as military equipment and shelter illumination. Using our state of the art manufacturing facility and a large network of expert suppliers, we design and fabricate luminaries for your specific applications. Our industrial design team can provide detailed renderings for the products and light studies to develop a good understanding of the required target products. CRS Electronics is a CSA, ETL and UL recognized manufacturing facility and is able to develop general location or hazardous location products and fixtures.

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Anodic Bonding Specification

We tested a number of glass and metal plate samples provided by Nemalux for the successful formation of metal-to-glass hermetical seals using anodic bonding. Procedure: 1) Use standard anodic bonding procedure of preparing the samples by cleaning, polishing to ensure adequate smoothness and then placing on the anodic bonding apparatus. Consideration must be given to fabricating the proper electrical contact. 2) Apply the anodic bonding to various permutations, noting the bonding resistance to liquid (hermetic seal), bonding strength and thermal stress (microcracks and other stress indicators). 3) Vary parameters to create the best bond (effective hermetic seal, acceptable thermal stress and bonding strength).

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NASA Ames Research Center Wind Tunnel Project

One of the more challenging applications for lighting systems is the illumination of confined spaces. Such a challenge was presented to the Nemalux team by members of the NASA Ames Research Center. Built in 1956, the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California is an impressive example of engineering and design. As part of the continuous improvement program, the facility has been testing a variety of LED systems to increase existing light levels, decrease maintenance cost and improve visibility for a wide range of cameras and sensors.

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Vision Restoration

Eyes are the doorway to the most crucial of senses. Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) are progressive blinding diseases caused by the death of retinal rods and cones in the eyes. The visual system remains relatively intact but is unable to respond to light. The University of Pennsylvania conducts research into the diagnosis and treatment of RP and AMD. The purpose of this research is to develop improved methods of diagnosis and effective treatments for these diseases. In today’s research there are several approaches for rendering the surviving neurons sensitive to light and restoring a light response to a diseased retina. Testing the effectiveness of these approaches requires a way to deliver different wavelengths of light at various temporal frequencies and intensities. The challenge is to apply these different light stimuli, observe the results, and use the results to objectively assess the effectiveness of the various approaches for restoring retinal light response.

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Can You Trap Light?

The “light trap” is an invention which slows down and traps light into a rolled up Nautillus shell or cylinder for the purpose of retaining light throughout the day inside the device and time-offsetting the release of the light by the number of daylight hours so that the first ray of light entering the device at dawn is the first ray of light released by the device at sunset (it is a passive streetlight or car headlamp technology). The functionality can be achieved by depositing an effective BEC on the surface of a thin film sheet and rolling up the effective BEC-thin film composite; there are variations of an enclosed or open system as well as using an actual BEC or Fabry-Perot cavities for the light trap aspect.

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Encapsulant Fill Route for Water Tight Linear Fixture

There is an established need for a water tight linear fixture in the CRS Electronics product line-up. This document evaluates the proposal for filling the standard product line with an encapsulant for the ultimate level of water protection. While using an encapsulant to fill the GS product has been demonstrated, there remain manufacturing time and complexity concerns with this approach. Several prototypes were created using several different manufacturing methods, with mixed results.

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LED Encapsulation

LED encapsulation or potting of the LED fixtures prevents the ingress of moisture, the increase product reliability and insulation. Encapsulated LED fixtures have applications in environments where there is excess moisture content in the atmosphere, since the exposure of electronics in a water rich environment can trigger the corrosion of the metals in the electronics. Potted light fixtures can also be designed as an explosive proof fixture. When choosing a potting material, there are several factors that need to be considered. The potting compound and the LED board have different a coefficient of thermal expansion, so the hardness of the material has to be chosen so that the material does not disturb the position of the LED on the board. The UV stability material needed to be considered, the UV degradation causes the yellowing of the material. Based on the tests conducted, QSil 216 was preferred due to its UV stability and softness. The fixtures with QSil 216 encapsulated were put in field test and some of them sent back due to the board failures. The failure reason of the fixtures has not yet been concluded, but it could be due to the chemical degradation of the LED phosphor by reacting with the QSil Primer. Another possibility is that there is a good chance that during the assembly process the employee didn’t spread the primer uniformly over the PCB. To overcome these issues we approach many companies for an alternative solution. A solution could be a polymer that can adhere to the PCB without any primer.

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Chemical Compatibility Testing – LEDs

Chemical testing was carried out on a number of compounds to assess their compatibility for close contact with LEDs in CRS Electronics fixtures. This test is accelerated stress test, designed in a way that it will produce noticeable degradation on relatively short time-scales. The chemical compound of interest is applied directly to the LED surface where possible, and a low volume glass vial is sealed over top of the LED and test chemical using a compatible sealant such as Arctic Silver epoxy or 3M TC-2810 epoxy. In cases where the chemical compound of interest is an aerosol, the compound is sprayed into a glass vial and the vial immediately placed into an already-prepared adhesive ring around the LED in order to trap as much of the aerosol components as possible. The sealant is allowed to cure fully before powering the LEDs at a current setpoint representative of their use in product. The test fixture is powered on continuously, with notes and photos taken at intervals to track degradation of the light output.

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Grain Dust Testing

These are some pictures of the CSA and UL certification process in a testing facility. The products are being covered by a grain dust blanket and then thermally tested. This test is done for Class 2 Division 1 as well as others.

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Deep Space Lighting

How do you thermally manage the light fixture when there is no air? There is no way for the heat to dissipate, so will the fixture heat up indefinitely? Below is data from an experiment we performed with the luminaire. We put the light in a cardboard box and filled the box with paper – for insulation. We tried to simulate vacuum operation with the setup by eliminating/minimizing convective heat transfer. We turned the light on for 20 minutes and recorded the temperature of the light’s housing in the middle of the cylindrical section of the housing. We also watched the cooling of the light after we turned the light off in order to get an idea of how well the box was insulated. It looks like the housing temperature increased by about one degree F. per minute. What is the maximum temperature for the surface of the housing for the luminaire? It appears as if the box was adequately insulated. During the first 20 minutes of cooling the temperature of the housing decreased by less than two degrees F.

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Cold Temperature Testing

CRS Electronics was requested to conduct cold-temperature evaluations of the RSLED product family. Testing was carried out in our environmental chamber to assess fixture operational behaviour in cold temperature conditions. For cold temperature installations, most power supplies have trouble with cold-start below a certain threshold. This is exacerbated by the LED forward voltage dependence on temperature, causing a significant rise in the required voltage to drive the LED board. When tested, the Meanwell supplies started to show reduced output for cold starts at -32°C, but self-heating should allow the units to operate at full or near to full power. Below -32°C cold-start operation of this supply cannot be guaranteed, and continuous operation is recommended. The Autec supplies are more tolerant of cold temperatures than the Meanwell drivers. The Autec configuration (123.5’ cable test for maximum voltage drop) successfully cold started to 98% of full power from a power supply temperature of -45°C, working at full power above this level. The best performing minimum operational temperature, with full power output during continuous operation, was achieved with the Autec supplies at -60°C ambient. The minimum operating temperature will be lower during field use when the effects of maximum allowable voltage drop are not being experienced, as they were in this testing.

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Chemical Compatibility

Chemical testing was carried out on a number of compounds to assess their compatibility for close contact with LEDs in CRS Electronics fixtures. This test is accelerated stress test, designed in a way that it will produce noticeable degradation on relatively short time-scales ( This test is unrelated to chemical compatibility of compounds with encapsulation materials. The chemical compound of interest is applied directly to the LED surface where possible, and a low volume glass vial is sealed over top of the LED and test chemical using a compatible sealant such as Arctic Silver epoxy or 3M TC-2810 epoxy. In cases where the chemical compound of interest is an aerosol, the compound is sprayed into a glass vial and the vial immediately placed into an already-prepared adhesive ring around the LED in order to trap as much of the aerosol components as possible. The sealant is allowed to cure fully before powering the LEDs at a current setpoint representative of their use in a product. The test fixture is powered on continuously, with notes and photos taken at intervals to track degradation of the light output.

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High Radiation Environments for CRS Electronics Product Lifetime

We have been approached regarding the suitability of our products for use in high radiation environments. Given our existing installations at nuclear power plants, this may be a good market for us to focus on. Two types of degradation or failure modes for radiation damage to electronics: Cumulative effects, and Single Event Effects (SEE). 1) Cumulative effects are gradual effects taking place during the whole lifetime of the electronics exposed in a radiation environment. A device sensitive to TID or displacement damage will exhibit failure in a radiation environment when the accumulated TID (or particle fluence) has reached its tolerance limits. It is therefore in principle possible to foresee when the failure will happen for a given, well known and characterized component. 2) Single Event Effects are due to the energy deposited by one single particle in the electronic device. Therefore, they can happen in any moment, and their probability is expressed in terms of cross-section. A device sensitive to SEE can exhibit failure at any moment since the beginning of its operation in a radiation environment.

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High Bay Module (Off the Shelf Components)

This document serves as a write-up of one product option, an inexpensive indoor-rated high-bay fixture, which is one potential offshoot of the project. From initial feasibility studies and prototyping on the Light Cannon project, it is clear that heat pipes are well suited as a thermal management technology for high power density LED arrays where the thermal load can be dissipated to the immediate environment of the fixture. Product Features: ~18,000 lumen output (400W metal-halide replacement); System efficiency of up to 113 lumens/Watt; Small fixture size (approx. 12cm x 15cm x 25cm including a 10 cm reflector); Restricted to indoor environment as a first product. Weather-proof outdoor versions are certainly feasible, but would be a more expensive product and require longer R&D cycle time to bring to completion; System cost of approx. $360 (exclusive of manufacturing cost).

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Extreme Temperature Testing

Prior to fixture being loaded into the chamber, several digital photos of the UUT will be taken, noting any visual defects, or apparent discolorations. Power will be applied to the UUT to ensure that the unit is functioning normally. UUT will be loaded into chamber, power will be applied via the programmable power supply, the chamber will be sealed, and the time of such will be noted. The thermal cycling will begin by moving to the high temperature of 105°C at a target rate of 2°C/min. Once the UUT has reached 105°C the temperature will be held for 45 minutes to allow the entire unit to stabilize in temperature. The UUT power will then be turned off for a period of 10 minutes, at which point, the power will be turned back on to simulate high-temperature turn-on events. It will be left on for approx. 5 minutes. The temperature will then be commanded to reduce to -55°C, again at a target rate of 2°C/min where the low temperature will again be held for 45 minutes, before removing system power. After a period of 10 minutes, the power will be reapplied to simulate low-temperature turn-on. This pattern will continue until 1000 hours of time have elapsed. It is estimated that a single cycle will take approx. 280 minutes, meaning that the device will undergo approximately 214 cycles. Voltage and current values from the digital power supply will be logged throughout the test.After 1 week, preliminary data will be reported to the client. Each day, the device will be checked to ensure that the system is still functioning normally (by inspecting whether the power is still being properly applied). After 1000 hours (or when there has been a failure), the chamber power will be removed, and the time of such noted. The UUT will be left for 4 hours, to allow for the unit to come to standard conditions, and a second visual inspection will be conducted. Digital images will be taken, and any apparent differences between the beginning and end points will be noted.

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Encapsulant Fill Route for Water Tight Linear Fixture

There is an established need for a water tight linear fixture in the CRS Electronics product line-up. This document evaluates the proposal for filling the standard product line with an encapsulant for the ultimate level of water protection. While using an encapsulant to fill the product has been demonstrated, there remain manufacturing time and complexity concerns with this approach. Several prototypes were created using several different manufacturing methods, with mixed results. Product requirements: 1) IP 67: Total protection against dust ingress, protected against the effects of water immersion between 15cm and 1m depth. 2) Minimal incremental cost over the product line. 3) Minimal additional manufacturing time and complexity. 4) For Class 1 Division 2

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Bruce Power–Boiler Light Improvement Project

Bruce Power Nuclear Generating Station is located in south western Ontario, Canada. It is the largest nuclear facility in the world. The eight generating units produce over 6000 MW electricity. The first units have been operational since 1976. Facility maintenance is critical to the long term operation of the generating station. Maintaining effective lighting around the boiler poses significant challenges: 1) Temperature and vibration conditions around the boiler shorten the life of conventional industrial lighting. 2) Lights that fail during unit operation often cannot be replaced until a unit shutdown. 3) Ineffective lighting reduces operational safety. 4) Lamp replacement (re-lamping) impacts maintenance costs.

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Lighting High Radiation Environments

We have been approached regarding the suitability of our products for use in high radiation environments. Given our existing installations at nuclear power plants, this may be an attractive market for us to target as word of mouth and keyword searches identify CRS Electronics as an option for these kind of installations.

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Active Cooling Initial IP Testing

A single light cannon module was built up as per the initial assembly instructions and then put through water ingress testing simulating rainfall. The unit continued to operate throughout testing in multiple orientations. On disassembly, the light cavity was found to be dry, but significant water ingress was found in the power supply cavity. Further work is required to identify the root cause of the leakage and develop a solution. The IP test unit was placed in the shower at the CRS Electronics Sales and Research location. The unit was placed on a pedestal to ensure that the shower water flow was incident on the full unit. In each of several configurations, the unit was placed under the shower flow for approximately 30 minutes. The fixture was then powered up using a GFCI-protected extension cord throughout testing. Visual inspection during each stage of the test confirmed that the light cavity remained dry.

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Light Is A Drug

Light is a drug. Every person on the planet needs light, so Jode Himann’s target market is essentially the people of the world. Not only is it relevant to his potential market size, but it has the ability to improve the quality of life for everybody on the planet. His company, CRS Electronics, provides industrial and commercial light emitting diode (LED) lighting using the latest technology and is launching an international sales initiative in the near future.

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